Puruṣārtha – The Four Pillars

Shree Yantra

The term classical astrology is often used in a rather narrow way. The fact is that we are really discovering the convergence of different cultures, from the Hellenist to Persian and both to Indian. Babylonian and Egyptian. There is no absolute boundary between one and another. This is not to say that there are no significant differences., but on many occasions, the commonalities are hiding in plain sight Zodiacal Releasing, Firdaria and Dashas are Time Lord systems with very similar intent and comparable methodology and indeed expression.

This is part of a series on Jyotish in relation to western traditional astrology. It has long been my contention that we understand best when we understand how things came to be and how wisdom was transmitted through what was then the known world. Indian, Persian and Hellenistic astrology clearly have common roots. It is my view that by studying elements of Indian or other schools of astrology and philosophies that we enrich our understanding of our own.

Puruṣārtha is an element of Sanatana Dharma (Hinduism) that can easily be applied in Traditional Western astrology as well as to Jyotish. Puruṣārtha might be profitably employed by a range of systems, certainly even beyond astrology itself. At the core of all traditional astrology, there are various forms of creation myths, which are quite similar. To understand that is to get to the root of authentic astrology.

The number four is referred to extensively in astrology, as in innumerable other contexts and most. cultures. The most obvious of these are the four seasons, the four elements, the four directions, the four winds and the four humours.

Hinduism created or recognized a four-part guide to live, including all dimensions of life in the Puruṣārtha. These have both personal and universal dimensions and can be expressed quite well by reference to the divisions of the horoscope.

As in many elements of Santana Dharma, there is no consensus about whether these pillars should be considered hierarchically, but they do constitute a complete system. They give us four elements of the circle of life, existing in four sets of trigons. This is the same as the Western House System to that extent. Both Hellenistic Astrology and Jyotish both use the Whole Sign system, bring us closer together.

However, the progressive element is not so widely understood in the West. We see how the fourth house of Moksha Houses proceeds to Death in the 8th and to Moksha. in the 12th. All three phases are required and work with the other Puruṣārtha. They also impart significance to the houses of the horoscope. In Hellenistic Astrology, there are two fortunate houses, the 11th and. the 5th along with two evil houses. 12 and 6. This is a simplification but serves to se5t the scene. The Second House is the Gates to Hades and the House at the other end of the axis, is the House of Death. Indian astrology is similar but not identical. I believe the origin of assigning such caution to the 2nd house is due to a concern for materialism that is rarely seen in most parts of the modern West but is still central to Indian thought. Asceticism is celebrated in the lives of Saints. Clearly, from this point of view, attachment to the material world is considered deleterious.

Houses 1, 5 & 9  are the Dharma Houses and the element of fire, marked in red.. The Artha houses, 2,, 6 & 10 are Earth and marked in saffron. 3,11 & 7 are air and the Moksha houses are 4.8 and 12, and associated with the water signs..

Dharma

For Hindus and Buddhists, dharma is the moral order of the universe and a code of living ethically that embodies the fundamental principles of law, religion, and duty that governs the social structure and indeed all rares of human life. The Hindu worldview asserts that by following one’s dharma, a person can eventually achieve liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth (samsara) Difficulties grasping an exact definition of what dharma means in Hinduism arise because there are so many uses of the word in stories and scriptures. Bot the essence of living an ethical life us shared by all. Hinduism is the religion of one god with a million faces. There are dualistic schools and non-dualistic schools. In the final analysis, understanding is very much the same.

But mostly it’s equated with principles such as duty, honour, justice, good works, character, and virtue. In many stories of Hinduism, when a person is in trouble, they turn to dharma to find their way out of a difficult situation.

Artha

The astrological houses of Artha are 2, 6 & 10, as you might expect. These are concerned with what one possesses, of work and the hope of recognized achievement or eminence. Artha (Sanskrit: अर्थ) is one of the four aims of human life in Indian philosophy. The word is translated as “meaning, sense, goal, purpose or essence” depending on the context in which it is used. This includes aspirations and attainment.

Plucking Tea in Assam, India.

Kama

Best understood as aesthetics, the definition of Kama involves sensual gratification, sexual fulfilment, the pleasure of the senses, love, and the ordinary enjoyments of life regarded as one of the four ends of man (purusharthas). This would naturally be closely related to the associations we have of Venus in Traditional Western astrology. Kāma (Sanskrit, Pali) means desire, wish, longing, but it would be a great mistake to think of this as trivial. I(n Hinduism, it is understood that without desire there would be nothing.at all In the time before time and creation, Vishnu dreams the Universe reclining on the coils of the serpent Shesha, accompanied by his consort Lakshmi, as he “dreams the universe into reality” It is Lakshmi who stimulates the Universal dream by her touch.

page from the kama sutra

So, in fact, the Universe was born of desire. The astrological houses are 2, 5 & 9.  This will seem somewhat alien to the western astrologer, but that is because we tend to want to separate pleasure from wisdom. The pleasures of Kama include the pleasures of the higher mind. If our pleasures lead us astray, then Dharma is there to reset the balance.

Moksha

Moksha is understood as liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth known as samsara.

Vivekachudamani, a popular text on Moksha, defines it as the following:

Beyond caste, creed, family or lineage,
That which is without name and form, beyond merit and demerit,
That which is beyond space, time and sense-objects,
You are that, God himself; Meditate this within yourself.

-Vivekachudamani, 8th Century AD

The first house in the natal chart is always the ‘Udaya Lagna’ or the Ascendant, the sign that is rising on the eastern horizon at the time of birth.  his is the same in Hellenistic astrology. The other houses follow the zodiacal sequence and the trigons each deal with an aspect of human life. Here we have the water trigon – the three stages of enlightenment. It is crucial to remember that the entire system is required and that difficulties in one house can easily affect the other signs in the trigons.

The fourth house in Jyotish is about roots, including Ancestry. Everything that refers to strong ties to your native place comes under the dominion of this house. But chiefly, it’s about roots. Without roots, there can be no blossoms.

It will be seen that Indian concepts and techniques may be gainfully introduced into virtually any form of astrology, without detracting from the form currently being used. This actually has intriguing similarities to Hellenistic astrology Both systems have at their root the will to be better and to further the good. The works of Plotinus and Philo remind one of Hindu metaphysics. In other words, they are both centred in an ethical framework.

Shri Vishnu Lakshmi

The Zodiacal Riddle of Vettius Valens

The phases of the moon, Liber Floridus, 1460, The Hague KB 72 A 23, f.16gr

The works of major Hellenistic astrologers have become available over the last few decades. Of course, Claudius Ptolemy has been part of the canon for centuries. His works have been helpful in many ways, but we can’t say he is the last word. Indeed, the reading of Ptolemy has lead to many preconceptions, particularly with regard to which zodiac is to be used.  He leaves us with the strong impression that the Tropical zodiac is the only one to use.

When I first Vettius Valens I was aware that there were enormous problems with the transmission, Rober Hand makes note of several of them. I have come to the conclusion that Valens was using more than one system and that it was never certain even which zodiac he used. Returning to the text of the Anthology I was taken by parallels, by no means perfect, between recognizable colloquial Greek methods and particularly Indian and Babylonian astrology. I have needed to to be selective due to the sheer volume of material.

There is still a persistent perception that Hellenistic Astrology is a particularly Greek development, no doubt because of the fact that it’s assumed that the Hellenists were all Greek. We know that Philo was a Hellenized Jew but nobody thinks he was born in Athens. I’m assuming here that the reader is familiar with the term is also aware of the extent of reciprocal influence across the known world. With this in mind, I believe that Hellenistic Astrology can be better understood.

For example, on first reading The Anthology of Vettius Valens, one may be bewildered about many things, but for the most perplexing element of all is his explanation of the nature of the signs and planets. For example, he tells us that Aries is watery: Surely this requires further explanation. How can a blazing Fire sign be watery It occurred o me that what he actually doing was describing the season in the Northern hemisphere. Rather than looking at the influence of Mars, he may as well be talking about April showers.

Autumnal Sky

“Aries is by nature watery, with thunder and hail. From its first degree to the equinox, it is stormy, full of hail, windy, destructive. The middle degrees up to 15° are mild and fruitful; the following degrees are hot and cause plagues> of animals. This sign has 19 bright stars. On the belt are 14 bright stars, 27 dim, 28 somewhat bright, and 48 faint. The constellations that rise at the same time as Aries are (in the north) the first part of Perseus, and the rear and the left parts of Auriga, and (in the south) the fin and tail of Cetus. When Aries is rising,> the feet of Bootes (in the north) and the hind parts of Lupus (in the south) are setting. Vettius Valens, Anthologies,”  Book I.3

Let’s turn to his thoughts on Taurus: “Taurus is feminine, solid, lying in the sun’s spring tropic, full of bones, with some limbs missing, rising backwards, setting straight down. This sign lies for the most part in the invisible sky. It is calm. From its first degree to 6° (the section of the Pleiades) it is worthless, even destructive, disease-producing, thundering, causing earthquakes and lightning flashes.

What are we to make of this? It doesn’t describe the sign, Taurus under Venus, the Exaltation 0f Pisces. Neither does it begin at the first degree. In the Northern Hemisphere and May is usually mostly blessed with clement weather. I’m at a loss unless he is referring to the constellation itself without associating it with the sign Taurus. How could we use such information in astrological interpretations?

This passage tells us several things about how Valens interpreted the heavens. Aries doesn’t line up with the Equinox, but he doesn’t say here exactly how many degrees it differs from 0° Aries and the Tropical Vernal Equinox. The first part of Aries, in the Decan of Mars, is watery by nature, producing hail and high winds. The second Decan of Aries is the Sun and according to Valens, is “mild and fruitful.” The final Decan of Aries is Jupiter, the greater benefic, which is hot and causes plagues.

Further, Valens tells us that “Taurus is feminine, solid, lying in the sun’s spring tropic, full of bones, with some limbs missing, rising backwards, setting straight down. This sign lies for the most part in the invisible sky. It is calm. From its first degree to 6° (the section of the Pleiades) it is worthless, even destructive, disease-producing, thundering, causing earthquakes and lightning flashes.The next two degrees are fiery and smokey. The right part (toward Auriga) is temperate and cool. The left parts are worthless and changeable, sometimes chilling, at other times heating. The head (to 23°) is in a temperate atmosphere, but it causes disease and death for living things. The rest is destructive, worthless, disease-ridden.”” It is unclear as to why he would refer to Taurus as “; lying in the sun’s spring tropic” or why a Venusian sign is so destructive. Nevertheless, he goes on to mention 27 stars.

Throughout the Anthology, Valens is meticulous when regarding the stars, noting not only the constellation but groups of asterisms, seen to be part of a divine play. It recalls Hesiod’s Works and Days, wherein, for example, Hesiod’s associates of the rise of the “rainy” Pleiades with wet weather and Sirius with very hot weather, just as the Egyptians did, If he is referring to the sign as it has been known, it makes precious little sense.

As one progresses through the work of Valens it becomes increasingly apparent that his work, among many other things, might be used as a kind of almanack, bit with due caution.. Hesiod was better skilled at that.

Valens is thought by many to have used a sidereal zodiac which plausibly accounts for his notion that the Vernal Equinox is not the same as °Aries.  The fact is, he may not have known the difference because the two zodiacs at that time would yield very similar results. I heartily recommend Chris Brennen’s chapter on Tropical Versus Sidereal Zodiacs in his Hellenistic Astrology pp. 216-222. Let’s try to sort out the background.

Nearly 1800  years ago the Battle of Hormozdgan decided the fate of the Parthian Empire and led to the rise of the Sasanian Empire that would rule unchallenged over the Middle East for 400 years.. Yet the culture itself went back millennia. The tropical Zodiac was being used by some as early as the 2nd century BCE Others used the Sidereal Zodiac.

The difference between signs and constellations

Since Pythagoras’s expedition in 570 B.C., the strategic body of water that finds its way into the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.,has been called the Persian Gulf. Compared to the focus on Greece and Rome, Persia hasn’t enjoyed anything like the scholarly attention it so obviously deserves, and this is certainly true with respect to astronomy and astrology in the 20th century., including the creation myth that informs them. There have however been notable exceptions. Theirs was a rich tradition of the Magi, esteemed throughout the known world. It was also a culture that venerated the stars.

Yet they were one of several highly advanced societies with regard to astronomy and astrology. As I have written elsewhere,, even the most unjustly founded empires do in fact have some advantages and this is very much the case in the transmission of knowledge. The Hellenistic world united Greece with Egypt and  Persia with both. The School of Alexandria was among the greatest venues for shared knowledge, from Hindu astronomers and astrologers, Buddhists, Pythagoreans, numerous Solar religions, Neo-Platonists, devotees of Isis, Christians, Jews, Babylonian and Zoroastrians.

The 28 “western” Lunar Mansions

It’s a Persian, Indian, Babylonian, Egyptian and Greek alchemy that produced what we now call Hellenistic astrology and to practise this, one requires a great deal of knowledge,  Recreating that astrology depends on a number of things, not least of which is being certain of which zodiac was being used.. In a recent article, I suggested that that Mashallah used the sidereal Sassanid zodiac on at least one occasion. Yet astrologers have been content to assume that he always used a Tropical Zodiac,

Nakshatras and Padas Nakshatra (Sanskrit: नक्षत्र, IAST: Nakṣatra) is the term for lunar mansion in Hindu astrology and Indian Astronomy. A Nakshatra is one of 27 sectors of the heavens.. Their names are related to the most prominent stars and asterisms in the respective sectors.

As previously indicated, during the time when many of these records were penned, the tropical and sidereal zodiac would have yielded similar results. Moreover, we now know that Indian Astrology had a significant and reciprocal impact on Hellenistic astrology.

The assumption of a universal Hellenistic Tropical Zodiac is fiction. However, this perception might explain why some of the Hellenist material we have is so perplexing, resulting in the illusion that there might be a need for two zodiacs for different purposes. The sidereal zodiac, as the name suggests, is anchored in the stars. The Tropical zodiac is oriented to the Equinox and Solstice points. The fact that the constellations precess at a rate of one degree every 70 years is for all intents and purposes, ignored. This naturally of much concern with those work with Fixed Stars and to be in a position to integrate nakshatras into interpretations.

Theodoros Karasavvas, J.D.-M.A has provided an enviably brief but accurate account of the origins of Greek astrology: “The Babylonians were the first people to systematically apply myths to constellations and astrology and describe the twelve signs of the zodiac. The Egyptians followed shortly after by refining the Babylonian system of astrology, but it was the Greeks who shaped it into its modern form. The Greeks borrowed some of their myths from the Babylonians and came up with their own. For that matter, even the word astrology – as well as the science of astronomy – is derived from the Greek word for star, “asteri.”

Dendera astrological calendar 12 constellations, each made of 3 decans10 days Each decan represents a major star. 1st Century ACE Roman period

The Babylonian, Egyptian and Indian zodiacs were sidereal. The Tropical and Sidereal Zodiac were the same when the precession of the equinox reached 0º ARIES in the year 221 A.D. in the heyday of Hellenistic astrology. In the last century,  the celebrated Egyptologist, Cyril Fagan, proved beyond any reasonable doubt that the original Egyptian zodiac was Sidereal. The practise of dividing each sign into three decanates was an integral element.

Decanal stars on boats in Hathor Temple at Dendera.’Starry gods are sailing on boats across the firmament on the astronomical ceiling in the outer hypostyle hall of the Hathor Temple at DenderaIt.

I=, not alone, but definitely among a tiny minority, who suspect that Valens and presumably other Hellenistic astrologers used a sidereal zodiac. This shouldn’t be seen as a problem because the Sidereal and Tropical zodiac have different uses. The tropical zodiac takes as its anchors the Solstice and Equinox points. It is the zodiac of choice for terrestrial timekeeping. Zero degrees Aries always marks the Spring Equinox and zero degrees of Libra will always mary the onset of Autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. The Tropical zodiac is the clear choice for calendrical, mundane purposes Precession has no consideration. We know that the rate of precession is approximately one degree every 70 years, so the stars are no longer necessary in the same sign. For example, The Heart of the Scorpios is now well into Tropical Sagittarius. Regulus, The Heart of the Lion isn’t even in Tropical Leo anymore, just as Fomalhaut is no longer in Aquarius.

If you are concerned with the position of the stars over time, the Sidereal Zodiac wins hands down, There are several bright and not so bright stars in the firmament that have ancient and consistent significance and the Tropical zodiac distorts this badly. It is clear that Valens was interested in asterisms, including circumpolar and other asterisms that did not fall on the ecliptic. Ursa Major, for example, is considered to be the three rishis and the seasonal turning of the constellation draws a swastika in the heavens, one of the most ancient sacred symbols. He was clearly very interested in the Fixed Stars.

Robert Hand, in his brilliant commentary on Valen,s makes some fascinating points regarding the close parallels of Indian astrology apropos of Valens. This would explain many things.

Anthology p. XII

The Nakshatras are 27 in number and are each specifically oriented to set asterisms. Each Nakshatra is divided into four Padas. Each pada is allocated to a sign. This gives us the sacred number or 108. The zodiac used in India is sidereal and there is no attempt made to pretend that the constellations associated with signs on the ecliptic are equal, which they most certainly are not. This isn’t the place to delve into the intricacies of Indian astrology, but I hope to have at least piqued an interest in expanding what we mean by Classica or Hellenistic for that matter. I believe this also opens to door to the possibility of modern astrologers using a sidereal for some purposes and to still remain “Classical.”.

I give the last word to Robert Hand whose introduction to Schmidt’s translation is masterful and he makes i very clear that the text is riddled with problems that show no sign of relenting any time soon. There have been additions made by later authors and contradictions abound. When faced with the signs beginning at 8 or ten degrees and aware of the urgent need to decide which zodiac he actually used. Hand concludes:

“The lunar mansion or nakshatra is 13°20’ long. This is very close to the average daily motion of the Moon in the zodiac, and it is well known that this is the derivation. The navamsa is exactly one-quarter of that and therefore resonates to the passage of the Moon through the quadrants of the chart. On average the Moon moves very close to 3°20′ of arc while it is rising from the Ascendant to the M.C., from the М.С. to the Descendant and so forth. ” Moreover, he uses two methods to establish the Ascendant in a horoscope, now known as A and B. They are closely allied with Babylonian astrology.

Once the text is finally sorted out, I believe that close reference to Indian astrology may be very helpful. I suspect that the model of Nakshatras will shed light on the often perplexing  astrology of Vettius Valens

Church of the Nativity in the village of Arbanasi, in Veliko Tarnovo, north-central Bulgaria, there is a similar zodiac fresco image — a “Wheel of Time” in which the cycle of human life is represented:

Rahu Ketu & Nakshatras for the Hellenistic Astrologer

Vishnu and Lakshmi on_Shesha Naga, Lakshmi stimulates the dream of creation.

This is a continuance of Astrological Mysticism in The Surya Siddhanta. Since that article was written several months ago, I have managed to obtain other texts on Indian Astrology which have served to explain or fill in apparent gaps. I have also been fortunate to meet highly accomplished Indian astrologers who were amenable to discussing how Indian techniques might be used in concert with Hellenistic astrology, I came away with two techniques that seem to be particularly useful and, to my way of thinking,, add much-needed dimensions.

My time here is not to go into any of these texts in depth but I will make them available to the reader who desires a broader compass. I will caution ahead of time that less is often more, particularly when the goal is practical in nature. Of course, particularly when discussing Indian Astrology, practise and spiritual discernment is as important as in its Hellenistic, Persian, Egyptian, Druidic or Babylonian counterparts.

This can only serve as the simplest of introductions to two techniques used in Indian astrology. To tell the entire story would require the retelling and analysis borne of millennia. I, therefore, present this with due humility in the hope that it might spark interest in other practitioners of Hellenistic astrology.

Jyotish translates as “science of light,” and refers to the profound and mathematically sophisticated form of astrology originating in the earliest texts. Jyotish is as revered in the sub-continent as authentic astrology is largely undervalued and even reviled in the modern West. The essential tenets of Jyotish, including the nomenclature of the science of light, will not seem alien to a practitioner of |Tradional Western astrology. In fact, there is, therefore, an unbroken chain of this science of light going back to very ancient times.

In a previous article, we discussed The Surya Siddhanta of an unknown date. It was readily available in the 11th and 12th Century AD. The translation most commonly seen is that of Ebeneezer Burgess, published in 1860.. However, there is solid evidence that it was much older, perhaps existing in oral form long before that, It is also widely understood that changes had been made over the years

With uncertain provenance we must take what we have on its own terms., assisted by reference to other Indian astronomical works., It should be borne in mind that the same is true for all ancient forms of astrology. India the relationship between Spirit and Matter is common to all, in a highly developed form it is to the sciences, although they may use differing nomenclature. I have elected to employ the term Indian Astrology because it is practised from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari with surprisingly little variance, all things considered.

“The yantra is a mystical or astronomical diagram used as an amulet or charm. Beneficial in getting rid of insufficiency, competitors, resentment and bad effects of planets” – Neeta Singhal

The word Vedic can be misleading as can the nomenclature of Hindu astrology because it is used not only by Hindus, but also Sikhs, Jains, and Muslims. There are also many practitioners of Jyotish globally, but there is never any doubt of its origin in its present form. There is also an undeniable connection with the yogas and the gods are of Indian origin both Vedic and later.

For reasons which are not entirely clear, the intermingling of astrological cultures over millennia didn’t result in complete transference of some of the most useful elements of Indian astrology. Perhaps the chief of these is the Nakshatras system and an adequate understanding of the Nodes. Classical, Islamic and European sources tend to be vague on the subject of the Nodes and some don’t mention them at all. My friend and colleague Clelia Romano have done a splendid job of surveying the opinions of the Nodes and has provided 40 chart readings of people with mental illness to demonstrate how the Nodes work. A pdf from her site is available here.

Nakshatras are divisions of the zodiacal wheel by 27 which are further subdivided to arrive at the mystically significant of 108  The divisions of four are called padas and they are assigned planetary qualities. The Nakshatras are anchored to the stars so one might use a Tropical zodiac with Sidereal Nakshatras. This is not common practise in India because the Sidereal zodiac is usually (but not entirely) for all purposes. they are Lunar Mansions and Rahu and Ketu are also Lunar based.

This simple chart shows the positions of Nakshatras, showing planetary lords and ruling deity.

For the Western Astrologer, the use of a Sidereal Zodiac s problematic. Think for a moment that you have always known you were a fiery personality with a Leo Sun, an Aries Ascendant and Moon in Sagittarius. The Sidereal reading would have you be a Cancer Sun, a Pisces Ascendant and a Scorpio Moon. The elemental change alone is enormous, even before considering the signs. themselves. We are tropically oriented. Our system is based on the Solstices and Equinoxes and the Sidereal is based on the stars. But as fortune would have it, we can use the Tropical for the Signs and the Nakshatras at the same time.

The question arises, of course, as to why a Western Astrologer would eschew the various systems of 28 Lunar Mansion in favour of the Indian model. The truth is that Lunar Mansions are not used that much in the West, largely, I should think because they offer us very little information and even that much can be vague. Moreover, each version gives us different information. The great exception is the use of astrological magic and fine-tuning a particular element of a chart or indeed as a tool in chart rectification.

Because of the nature of the nakshatra,. we can discern a great deal about the nature of the soul’s first point of contact with the material world, as was explained to me by a highly credible Indian astrologer. Now, of course, such things are relevant in a plurality of systems. But we don’t actually suggest what was the nature of a previous incarnation or indeed one yet to come., There were attempts in the 70s and 80s riding high on the misguided New Age era. From the School of Theosophy came swaggering confidence that one could simply make up association using only the nodes.

It needs to be said that the idea of reincarnation or the transmigration of souls is solidly established in the European tradition from Plato to the Druids, who may have actually preceded the Indian sages on this matter. Brahmins have referred to the Druids as their European cousins or brothers. Indeed, early Christianity had proponents of reincarnation until they were silenced by orthodoxy. So the metaphysical of a mystical framework already exists, yet Traditional Astrology appears to avoid the question. I’m quite sure that the reason for this is the influence and threats of the Abrahamic religions.

So, a Hellenistic or Persian astrologer could employ Nakshatras, with a Tropical zodiac and in fact, this is done by Indian Astrologers both within and outside the sub-continent.  Let me provide one example of how this can be done. This is a chart calculated in a Hellenistic programme, showing the 27 Nakshatras, the Padas and the traditional Chaldean Decans. It so happens that the Whole Sign system is the most often used on the Indian sub-continent. The Hellenistic astrologer is not required to make any essential changes beyond using the Nakshatra and taking the Nodes as seriously as Vettius Valens.

We find the Lagna (Ascendant) is in the 27th degree of Libra – the Nakshatra is Vishaka, which occupies 20-00 Libra To 3-20′ Scorpio. Jupiter is the Lord and the symbol is an Archway and both Indra and Agni preside. Indra is one of the oldest gods from the Rigveda and Agni is both a god and Fire. The short description or general characteristics: include energy, strength and potential power, bright in appearance, well spoken and adept at making money. The Pada is Gemini and Mercury is very happy here. Jupiter brings a driving idealism in this place.  The character is described as being versed in scriptures. So we would derive a charming and effective person, an idealist desirous of change towards justice, but one whose health is likely to be fragile.

Sometimes the Moon Nakshatra is studied, along with the Sun or any other point. However, the Lagna seems particularly important and immeasurably more so when considered in relation to the Nodes. The western astrologer might use this useful astrological tool. However, we haven’t got the full benefit until we have studied Rahu and Ketu through the eyes of Indian Astrology:.

The creation of Rahu and Ketu is told in the creation myth itself. The story is one of immortality stolen by a dissembling demon. This is the most pertinent part of the story for our purposes:

Devas (demigods) appealed to Vishnu, who then took the form of Mohini and as a beautiful and enchanting damsel, Mohini distracted the asuras, took the amrita, and distributed it among the Devas, who drank it. Asura Rahu-Ketu, disguised himself as a deva and drank some nectar. Due to their luminous nature, the sun god Surya and the moon god Chandra noticed the switching of sides. They informed Mohini. But before the nectar could pass his throat, Mohini cut off his head with her divine discus, the Sudarshana Chakra. But as the nectar had gone down his throat he did not die. From that day, his head was called Rahu and body was called Ketu. Later Rahu and Ketu became planets. The story ends with the rejuvenated Devas defeating the asuras.

Komilla  Sutton writes “Rahu Ketu is the name given to the Nodes of the Moon. Rahu is the North Node and Ketu is the South Node. They are points on the ecliptic where the Moon is in alignment with the Sun and the Earth. They indicate the precise point of harmony with the three most important influences in our life- the Sun, the Earth and the Moon. This relationship plays an important part in the unfolding of individual consciousness.”

Dark forces gaining divine attributes through deception is an archetypal tale of the Fall. The attempt to kill the Asura, only made him more malefic. It is not true that the N|odes are always malefic, but they often are and should be studied closely. Whether or not they are demonic isn’t up for debate. They have advisedly named shadow planets. They are secretive and not always easy to detect.

According to Sutton: “Rahu behaves like Saturn. It deals with drugs, poisons, over-ambition, power play, hidden knowledge… Rahu’s element is air. It deals with all aspects of air-related activities air travel, Air accidents, Aviation, Pilots etc. Other significations of Rahu include students of Astrology, metaphysical knowledge, witchcraft, skin diseases, smallpox, deception, politics, political manoeuvre, inventions, scientists, execution, diseases, disenchantment etc.”

Rahu

Rahu is the head and for our immediate consideration, the mouth. Rahu is forever hungry and analysing. He can eat but lacks the body required for digestion. This brings with it an obsessive nature. Of course there will always be other considerations required to get the full picture, but imagine in Rahu were in the fifth house. The perennial hunger could result in excessive, even uncontrollable gambling or result perhaps in what is now called sex addiction. Desires are out of control.

In the tenth house, Rahu might manifest as an unquenchable desire for prominence. In the second house, Rahu can never have enough possessions. This need has almost nothing to do with wealth. We can see this in compulsive collectors who are never satiated and always looking for the next piece. The drive will never be satisfied because Rahu cannot digest. He is perennially hungry and the hunger is insatiable..In Indian astrology, the 2nd house includes speech as its province. This could a mellifluous voice with an occasionally sharp tongue.

Rahu in the first house belongs to people who can’t seem to get enough of themselves. They may well appear selfish to others. But of course, Ketu will be in their seventh house. This brings a crisis in relationship pursuits. Obviously, the other elements of the chart will affect how this is expressed.

If we refer back to our sample chart, where we found the Nakashatra Vishaka, on the Ascendant, we now add Rahu to the ninth house, this could subvert the good qualities by exaggerating. The fictitious person might tend towards a degree of fanaticism in religion and the domains of Jupiter.

Ketu is the headless body. Kee5tu can usually indicate something about what has past, including what preceded your physical being in this life. What Ketu wants most of all is-Moksha -liberation. Because no ‘thing’ can give that, Ketu rejects what is available where he is. So, Rahu is unsatiable appetite and Ketu is on the opposing side of the spectrum. They are desire and aversion personified if you will. IF this results in rejecting negative elements, then all is well and good. But if helpful elements are discarded, this could be quite devastating.

Importantly, the “Nakshatra’s Ketu rules are Ashwini (Aries), Magha (Leo) and Mula (Sagittarius), the fire triplicity. These are the beginning stages in the cycles of life. Mars, Sun and Jupiter the rulers of Aries, Leo and Sagittarius are friends with each other. Together they represent strength, the soul and wisdom, Ketu has the capacity to give in these areas. A proper blending of these three planets in our natal charts direct us towards seeking Moksha- the final liberation from the cycle of life and death.” See Sutton, Komilla 

Ketu Dev Tail of Demon Snake

Most intriguing is that Mula is the most difficult and painful of the Nakshatra because the work is to cut through all illusion. In relation to the fire triplicity, we can say that warrior, sage and sol are dramatically energized by Ketu in the quest for Moksha.

The examples I’ve given are for the Natal chart which is the main focus of this article. I have long used the Nodes in Mundane charts also. Mundane has its own set of rules, but the same principals apply. I have noticed a very high number of catastrophes in which the Nodes are squaring a key point in the chart, but even here, there are many other elements to consider and the seasoned astrologer will know what to do..

Summary: I have attempted to offer an introduction and insight into two interconnected elements in Indian astrology, that I believe would be easy enough for most Hellenistic astrologers to incorporate. The Nakshatras are anchored in the stars and the Tropica Zodiac derives from the Solstice and Equinox points. The nodes are so poorly documented in the Western tradition to render them next to useless. Many writers don’t mention them, mention them in passing and usually contradict each other. Indian astrology does not have that problem. Also, Hellenistic and Indian astrology have a great deal in common already. Both use the seven planets/luminaries and the nodes. Both favour the whole sign system. I should think that the most challenging point of disagreement is the zodiacs. But it is permissible to use the one with which you are familiar.

There are few stellar practitioners of Indian astrology who have published extraordinarily fine works to help the westerner understand the astrology of the Indian sub-continent: I recommend anything by Dr David Frawley, Light on Life by Hart Defuw & Robert Svoboda. Ancient Hindu Astrology for the Modern Western Astrologer by James Braha,  The Nakshatras by Dennis M. Harness. The Lunar Nodes: Crisis & redemption. & The Nakshatra: The Stars Beyond the Zodiac. by Komilla Sutton.

Rahu-Rahula-Tibetan form-

Astronomical Code of the Ṛgveda: I

Sky battle of Kurukshetra

It has been my contention for a very long time, that if we were to somehow remove the Indian influence on astrology, we would have precious little left at the end of the day. Moreover, this source of wisdom goes back to the sages who composed the first of the Veda, know as the RgVeda. This would take us back perhaps 6,000 years and we can safely estimate that the oral wisdom predated even that by a considerable period of time. It is thought that Zarathustra was a Vedic priest, which would speak to the far reach of the Vedic cultures which extended also well into what is now Afghanistan.

The purpose of this article is to stimulate further research and increased dialogue with practitioners of ancient Indian astrology. However, it is merely an incomplete introduction and if it raises more questions than it answers, I shall be content with that. The title of this article is taken from Subhash Kak’s The Astronomical Code of the Ṛgveda (Third Edition)  2011 which has kindly been offered.to the public for personal use at no charge.

There are some splendid Western scholars Indian astrology, including such greats as Dr. David Frawley, James T.Braha, Hart Defouw, Robert Svoboda, Komilla Sutton, and others. At the same time, we can learn a great deal from Indian, Greek, Egyptian, Babylonian, Zoroastrian and another form of astrology as they exchanged knowledge in Alexandria. I have always seen this as a kind of alchemy wherein the end is much greater than its constituent elements. Many astrologers have found that Greek astrology, for example, seems to be missing pieces of the picture and this is complicated further by the fact that Greek astrologers didn’t provide anything like consensus to posterity.

Nevertheless, the number of Western practitioners who welcome what ancient Indian astrology may have to offer them is minuscule. I suspect that one of the chief reasons for this is a lack of knowledge regarding the background and we stall at the difficulties of transference. Most obviously, it is difficult to ask even a seasoned practitioner to adopt one of the Sidereal zodiacs. The requires one to accept different Signs for the same periods. Also, the philosophy, mythology and indeed mysticism of Rahu and Ketu and immeasurable more advanced and developed than any Traditional Western system. Again, one needs to go to the ancient sour es and attempt to understand a way of being that, according to scholars of ancient Indian astronomy, actually belongs in a different Yuga – one in which the gods lived on earth.

The astronomical accuracy of the ancient rishis is astounding. In the ‘Hidden Mysteries’, publication, Osho states::  The deepest laws of astrology were first discovered in India,” says Osho while speaking about the origins of astrology and the relationship between the sun and the human body” Ch 5, Part 1 of 6. Oshos’s assertion is impossible to deny. There is simply nothing that comes close to Ancient Indian Astrology in terms of sophistication and astronomical accuracy involving virtually unfathomable periods of time.. This implies that all other schools of astrology owe their beginnings to that tradition. Of course, the fact is, we know very little about who these rishis actually were and even less about how they attained their level of knowledge.

Pages from the Rigveda

As is the case in Persian astrology, there is sophisticated interrelatedness between the Creation stories and astrology. In my mind, the Classical pantheon as related to astrology seems rather thin and derivative.  Venus, for example, is a mere caricature of the goddesses of India, Persia and the Middle East. Writing on the Nodes in the Western tradition are mostly vague and never very useful. It’s painful to read William Lilly fumble over the meaning of the Nodes. It is entirely understandable that any reader that he isn’t quite sure what to do with them. Personally, I prefer to try things out for myself and I can say that no western writer has been as clear and profound as Indian ones with regard to that topic.

One can, however, take what one has learned and apply it in the spirit of its significance rather than. with recourse to dogma. Indian and particularly Hindu culture is one in which nobody is held to account for worshipping and thinking what they see as truth. India is unique in this respect and is always amenable to diversity.  Dr. David Frawley writes”India’s vibrant democracy and diversity of spiritual and religious practices is owing to its Hindu majority culture and the vast rishi and yogic values it is based upon.”  This quality ought to suggest relative ease in incorporating Indian wisdom into Western astrology. As mentioned above, there are in fact significant hurdles today, which would have been far less so in antiquity.

Nevertheless, it should be borne in mind that there was indeed a great deal of transference in antiquity:

“The Vedic system of knowledge, with an assumed linkage between astronomical and terrestrial events, implies a system of astrology as well. The planetary periods [sic] evidence from the Rgvedic code is at least a thousand years before such knowledge outside India. With these dates and the attested presence of the Vedic Indians in West Asia in early second millennium BCE, it becomes easy to see how the astronomical ideas of the ¯re altars and the Rgveda could have been transmitted to Babylonia and Greece.” (See Subhash Kak. The Astronomical Code of the Ṛgveda (Third Edition)  2011. In later times, there was a reverse influence, notably from the Greeks and Persians.

Most perplexing of all is internal material in the RigVeda and what it tells us of the ancient origin of the work:

In the Rigveda, reference is made to a certain constellation of the stars which could only have occurred ninety-five thousand years ago. Because of this, Lokmanya Tilak concluded that the Vedas must certainly be even more ancient: the constellation of the stars as the Vedas described it could only have occurred at a certain moment ninety-five thousand years ago so that particular Vedic reference must be at least ninety-five thousand years old.

That particular Vedic reference could not have been added at a later period. Other, younger generations would not have been able to work out a constellation that existed many years before. But now we have scientific methods which we can use to discover where the stars were at a particular moment in the distant past.” (Osho, Hidden Mysteries, Ch 5 (translated from Hindi), Part 1 of 6.)

To accept this, we would have to radically change our concept of history – yet this ancient constellation would have to be accounted for. What possible reason could there be for the writers of RigVeda to invent such an elaborate fiction? Conversely, If we accept the internal evidence, we would have to admit that our knowledge of the distant past is sadly lacking.

It may come as a surprise that the Rigveda there “were two kinds of year in use. In one, the year was measured from one winter solstice to another; in the other, it was measured from one vernal equinox to another. Obviously, these years were solar and related to the seasons (tropical).” (Kak p. 177).  Most westerners consider the Sidereal Zodiac to be of the essence in Indian astrology, but there is reason to believe that it was a later, perhaps foreign idea. The division of the year into 12 Signs and 27 Nakshatras or constellations is illustrated thus:

© Subhash Kak

The 27 Nakshatras are roughly equivalent to the Lunar Mansions (28), except the Nakshatras are considered far more in modern Indian astrology and I suspect this goes back a very long way.

A Russian by the name of …. discovered that rishis were aware of an 11 years cycle in which the Sun produced a massive explosion. He realized that the cycle was immediately connected to human life. He got into trouble for suggesting that revolutions and other major upheavals mirrored a corresponding Solar disturbance. The point here is that the outer Universe was known to be inextricably connected to all forms of human life which is the most basic definition of ancient astrology.

Pythagoras traveled to India and  Egypt and was particularly impressed by spiritual practice and beliefs he found in India. From the record we have, which is by no means comprehensive, his theory of celestial correspondence appears to beat in part indebted to the essential knowledge he discovered there and that this provided the impetus to develop his own system.

It should be understood that this modest article does little more than point to the relevance of the Rigveda and Indian astrology. However, there are some things that the western astrologer can learn from Indian astrology and indeed the Vedas themselves. Most importantly is the spirit of ancient Indian astrology. It is immensely practical and deeply mystical. At this point in history, I am somewhat pessimistic about Indian and Western astrology can incorporate each other, but that is no small part due to the changes that have come to be in the unfolding of Indian astrology itself. The simple case of the sidereal and tropical zodiacs is one such barrier.

In a subsequent article, I will look more closely at how the rishis were able to achieve such extraordinary accuracy with respect to the length of the years, the yugas and planetary cycles. At least as interesting is why the felt they needed to map such massive periods of time.

The Hindu Trimurti: Vishnu, Brahma and Shiva seated on their respective mounts. (Public Domain)

 

Navarasa – Nine States of Mind

I claim no special expertise in this element of South Indian culture, but I do admit to a longtime fascination and deep affection for elements of traditional Indian culture. I was introduced to Indian classical music and dance at an early age and remain fascinated by the traditional Indian ability to incorporate such a high degree of eloquence in dance and music. In turn, this has a cosmic and astrological dimension which would fascinate any passionate astrologer. What animates the body and how we experience various states of being is ultimately a mystical experience. As described in the scriptures, these are the nine primary emotions experienced by ‘Shiva’ the Lord of Dance.

Navarasa or the nine moods and expressions come from Southern India, including Tamil Culture, The system is useful for a variety of reasons, but perhaps most particularly  in the training of traditional dancers, Indian dancing is meticulous in detail and that includes attention to mudras, the movements of the eyes and what the hand, eyes and expressions. Hindu architecture has sometimes been referred to as sculpture, simply because much of it is carved. Every form in ancient Indian art is rich in significance, transcending simple beauty to evoke the divine and the cosmic.

Every Rasa corresponds to a particular Bhava. The Natyshastra have carefully described the Bhavas used to create Rasa. The following table shows the nine moods (Navarasa) and the corresponding Bhava. Every Rasa is identified with a specific colour for the use in performing arts. Presumably, Bhavas may be co-mingled in the same way that planetary energies can work together, but there is a great advantage in distinguishing each by itself.

The number nine holds a special place in ancient Indian culture and indeed in many world cultures, both Oriental and Occidental. Ranee Kumar writes “The ‘Fruit of the Spirit’ comprises nine graces: love, peace, suffering, gentle, good, faith, meek and temperance. The ‘gifts of the Spirit’ are 9 in number: the word of wisdom, the word of knowledge, faith, healing, miracles, prophecy, discerning of spirits, tongues, and interpretation of tongues.”  (The Hindu 06 October 2011).

RASA

BHAVA MEANING COLOUR
Shringar(Erotic) Rati Delight Pale Light Green
Hasya (Humorous) Hasa Laughter White
Karuna (Pathetic) Shoka Sorrow Grey
Raudra (Terrible) Krodh Anger Red
Veera (Heroic) Utsaha Heroism Pale Orange
Bhayanaka (Fearful) Bhaya Fear Black
Bibhatsa (Odious) Jugupsa Disgust Blue
Adbhuta (Wonderous) Vismaya Wonder Yellow
Shanta (Peaceful) Calm Peace White

Navarasa: Reimagined Photo by Kiran Mirsa

An anonymous Indian source confirms that these relate to the planets thusly:

Adbhuta : Surya (Sun)

Karuna : Chandra, (Moon)

Veera : Kuja, (Mars)

Hasya : Budha,  (Mercury)

Shanta : Guru, (Jupiter)

Shringara : Shukra, (Venus)

Raudra : Shani,  (Saturn)

Bhayanaka : Rahu and (North Node)

Bhibhatsa : Ketu. (South Node)

So, these nine ‘moods’ or states of representing the motions of the indestructible soul on Earth. The fact that each has a direct correspondence with a planet (Indian astrologer consider the Node as planets) reveals a core belief that these nine energies are interwoven into every element of life. You will also note that relating these states of being to planets, tells us more about the planet and the Bhava itself. The idea that so much may be conveyed through dance is a thing of great beauty.

 

Indian Cosmology : Astrological Mysticism in the The Surya Siddhanta – I

A Panchānga, shown above, is a Hindu calendar and almanack, It presents important dates and their calculations in a tabulated form. It is Jyotisha

Earth is a sphere

Thus everywhere on [the surface of] the terrestrial globe,
people suppose their own place higher [than that of others],
yet this globe is in space where there is no above nor below.

Surya Siddhanta, XII.53
Translator: Scott L. Montgomery, Alok Kumar

Many people who are familiar with Indian Epic the Ramayana, will recall the many deeds of Ravana, including the capture of Sita. Less known are the extraordinary feats of King Maya. According to the legend, the Hindu Sun god, Surya, imparted highly specific knowledge of the universe to Maya. The series of treatises on that subject is known as the Surya Siddhanta. It is the most ancient book on astronomy believed to exist and it’s alarmingly accurate.  In the history of astronomy and astrology, it is a key document of inestimable value.

To define our terms, Surya is the Sun or Sun god. Solar deities are ubiquitous for reasons that are plain enough. Without the Sun there is neither light nor heat, rendering life impossible..

Siddhanta is a Sanskrit term denoting the established and accepted view of any particular school within Indian philosophy. Literally “settled opinion or doctrine, dogma, axiom, received or admitted truth; any fixed or established or canonical text-book on any subject” (Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary).  Surya (the supreme light) was the main solar deity in Hinduism; and also represents the Sun in India and Nepal. He is one of the core elements of Hindu astrology;  “Surya was the chief of Navagraha and the Classical Planets. He had 3 wives; Saranyu, Yama, and Yami. From northeast India, 11th century CE”. (Curator at National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK)

A sculpture of the Hindu sun-god Surya. The god is in a typical pose holding lotus flowers. Karnataka or Andhra Pradesh, India, c. 1100-1150 CE. (Los Angeles County Museum of Art)

It has become increasingly apparent, with the re-discovery of Hellenistic and Arabian astrology that we don’t have all the pieces. Without the study of Persian and Indian astrology, metaphysics and astronomy, we are missing elements that cause the relative break down in later systems. I notice this often in the venerable Greek texts, where I’m not alone left wondering what on earth the writer was thinking. Moreover, some of the techniques handed down to us from these sources lack consistent credibility. Some appear to be next to useless after decades of experimentation.

It would be quite impossible of course to do more than provide an introduction to the Indian systems and to point to particularly relevant sources of influence. I believe the greatest synthesis of early astrological synthesis was achieved in ancient Persia. This is only natural as Persia is like a geographical bridge between the Hellenistic, the Babylonian and Indian. This is the first of what I anticipate will be three articles.

Western culture, beginning with the Greeks, developed a taste for, and some ability at, writing more or less objective histories. Cultures who valued reason and logic over the mythological have strong advantages and many disadvantages. Indians did not make absolute distinctions between history and mythology and appear to have been particularly adept at finding a way for reason and mysticism to flourish. The Vedas were never considered ‘fiction’ as such. A linear narrative has no place in this view and in fact, most Indians believe the Vedas have neither a beginning nor an end.  They are immortal. They are spiritual. They offer practical guidance and even mathematical knowledge. At the same time, the age of the universe is the age of Brahma.

The easiest way to realize the difference, which I have admittedly simplified to some extent, is to ground the understanding in the infinite, a reality in which the temporal is subordinate to the infinite in all respects. The infinite is, of course, the source of the temporal, but Western culture became amnesiacal about this a very long time ago. Logical categories can be helpful but they can quickly become nothing more than cookie cutters. This system attempt to reduce the complexities of human existence by making things appear to be smaller, more manageable and separate from each other. However, consolation is not always the road to truth.

The Surya Siddhanta is a treatise on traditional Indian astronomy, said to date back over 1500 years and attributed to Mamuni Mayan, a Promethean hero in Tamil culture. There is a vibrant tradition that tells us the work is 2 million years old.  Be that as it may, it forms the basis of the Hindu and Buddhist calendars. Subsequent mathematicians and astronomers such as Aryabhata and Varahamihira frequently referred to it.

In his own work, entitled Pancha Siddhanta, the esteemed Varahamihira,, besides the Paitamaha Siddhantas (more or less identical to the “classical” Védanga Jyotisha ) of Siddhantas Paulisha and Romaka (directly inspired by Hellenistic astronomy ) and Vasishta Siddhanta. Varahamihira was one of the only renowned Indian Astronomer, Mathematician and Astrologer whose name became familiar throughout India.

The book Surya Siddhanta has clearly been reworked more than once. However. it is not impossible that there was a volume with the same title from the Mauryan Empire, providing a date sometime in the third century B.C. in southernmost, including what is now Sri Lanka. Al Biruni’s India is a rich source of astronomical knowledge in India at that time.

Of immediate interest to the student of the history of astronomy and astrology, we are provided with rules allowing us to assign to the stars movements in accordance with their position in the sky. It provides the positions of several different stars of the lunar nakshatras and even addresses the calculation of the solar eclipse.

In the upcoming series of articles, I intend to look closely at some core elements in the Surya Siddhanta in light of astrological theory. One such element is the importance of the Nakshatras.

Hindu Metaphysics – Yantra Mandala illustration

The Introduction to the work tells us that “The Surya Siddhanta is at the top of this class of revelations. It was revealed to Maya an Asura, in all probability an Assyrian or rather a Babylonian.” (See Surya-Siddhanta (11935)    The Assyrian and Babylonian element is not at first particularly obvious, but as the work progresses we find some markedly interesting parallels. much of it in the realm of what in these days referred to as visible astrology, the periods and phases of the planets and more. Yet The work itself tells us that the Surya-Siddhanta was “revealed more than 2,164,960 years ago, that amount of time having elapsed, according to Hindu reckoning, since the end of the Golden Age” (p.I)

It is these massive periods that have left many astronomers aghast, although the late Carl Sagan was fascinated by them. We do, after all, look through a glass darkly and the ordinary human mind is not equipped to deal with concepts such as infinity or to fully grasp the significance of the knowledge that the light of stars that died a million years ago that haven’t reached us yet. What we are seeing in deep space is the distant past.

The antiquity of the transmission is calculated using the Nakshatra system – the matching of an asterism at the very point at which it would have to have occurred in this system.:

“In calculating the conjunction (yoga) of a planet and an asterism (nakshatra), in determining the setting and rising of a planet, and in finding the elevation of the moon’s cusps, this operation for apparent longitude (drkkarman) is first prescribed.” (p. 190)

 

  1.  Cf. Bhāskarācārya, Bapu Deva Sastri, la traduction en anglais du Surya Siddhanta, Lancelot Wilkinson (ISBN 3-76481-334-2lire en ligne [archive])
  1. This painting from a manuscript depicts the Sun and Moon. The deer is associated with the moon in Indian culture and often used to symbolize the Moon in pictures. Image by British Library (copyright CCO 11,1 Creative Commons).