Abū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rushd (Latinized as Averroes), lived from 14 April 1126 – 10 December 1198. He was a Medieval Andalusian polymath who wrote profusely on logic, Aristotelian and Islamic philosophy, theology, the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, psychology, political and Andalusian classical music theory, geography and mathematics, Averroes is of great importance in Islamic philosophy for multiple reasons. He argued for the reconciliation of reason with revealed religion, pointing out passages from the Qu’ran to support his position. He was a powerful proponent of Astrology for the same reasons. He was accused of shirk or polytheism, for referring to the planets, and most particularly Venus, as if they were divine. He was exiled but eventually embraced back into court in Morroco.
عبدالرحمن صوفی’ or Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi was born December 7, 903 in the Persian city of Rey. He was also also known as Abd al-Rahman Abu al-Husayn, ‘Abdul Rahman Sufi, ‘Abdurrahman Sufi and known in the west as Azophi. A Persian Astronomer, Al-Sufi published his celebrated Book of Fixed Stars in 964, using both text and images. It was written in Arabic, rather than Farsi and was an attempt to combine elements of Claudius Ptolemy’s work and indigenous Arabian compositions or Anwa
He is credited with a large number fo discoveries, including what we now call the Magellanic Cloud, not visible from Persia, but from Yemen. It’s clear that he travelled a great deal. Astronomers have honored him by naming a crater and a very small planet after him, but for most of the world he is obscure.
This short piece is to bring attention to his contributions in the history of Astronomy and Astrology. For each constellation he painted two images, one from the outside of a celestial globe, and the other from the inside. He listed the position, colour and magnitude of the star. I also appreciate his fine and charming aesthetic as a visual artist.
The accompanying music is by Le Trio Joubran, ‘Masâr’, dall’album ‘Majâz’